Field Trial: Level 3 Quick-Charging Two EVs


After more than a year with our 2011 Nissan Leaf, we finally got the opportunity last week to charge it using one of the first public Level 3 quick-chargers installed in Chicago. We purchased our Leaf with a dedicated quick-charge port (then a $700 option, now standard on the SL trim level), but with the exception of an experimental mobile unit from Real Power that visited us last summer, the high-voltage quick chargers that were part of the promise of making life with an electric vehicle easier, failed to appear.

Delays resulted mainly because manufacturers struggled to get the hardware certified and networked to manage billing. It was a day of firsts for us, because this was also the first time we paid to charge an EV publicly. Level 2, or 240-volt, public charging has been free for us until now.


We chose a quick-charge location at a "cellphone parking lot" by Chicago's Midway Airport. That's where you sit and wait for your loved one to arrive instead of double parking in the arrival lanes, generating the ire of airport security. This is where one of three confirmed, operational Level 3 QCs the city has installed on its way toward a planned 73 — along with 207 Level 2 installations — resides.

The second option was at a tollway oasis, where most quick chargers will appear, and the third in a pay parking structure — the latter a strange choice since you end up paying to park as well as paying the charging fee, which the city has set at $7 per session. We headed to Midway with our Leaf and a 2012 Mitsubishi i — the only other current EV with a quick-charge port.


These quick chargers are on a network different from our usual one. (Can you say Betamax versus VHS?) We've been charging at Level 2 for more than a year on the network. Fresh from the mail, our prepaid CharJit network card ( was loaded with $21 dollars, and when I tapped it on the kiosk, I was instructed to plug in the car and press Start.

Unlike the regular pistol-grip connector on Level 1 and Level 2 charging cords (designated J1772), quick chargers use a larger-diameter connector, called CHAdeMO. Rather than a single trigger release, this one has a button plus a separate trigger lever. I suspect using this connector is easy to use when you know how — and I clearly didn't. Co-workers likened it to getting an electric hedge trimmer to start. After a couple of false starts, I removed it from its dock and plugged it into the Leaf.

When I pressed the start button, the charging began, as reflected by the blue indicator lights atop the Leaf's dashboard. We started the stopwatch. In theory, a Level 3 charger can provide an 80% charge within 30 minutes.


Our Leaf's battery-level meter started with one bar out of 12, or just over 8%, with a predicted range of 12 miles. The range increased by two to three miles for each minute of charging. For comparison, we're happy to see our Leaf add 10 miles of range for every hour of charging at Level 2.

As the minutes passed, the charging slowed. By the 10-minute mark, it was adding two miles of range every minute instead of three. After about 20 minutes, it was adding one mile per minute most of the time. After 30 minutes and a predicted range of 79 miles, the session ended. The battery-level meter showed eight bars out of 12. This being a 67% state of charge, we clearly hadn't reached our goal.

Rather than spend another $7 for one to two more bars, we gave the Mitsubishi i a turn. The only difference with this car was the sound of a loud cooling fan accompanying the charging process. (The Leaf has no fan.) The Mitsubishi started with its battery half full and doesn't allow range monitoring while it's charging, but within 10 minutes, the session had ended. According to the Mitsubishi's bar graph, it had hit roughly 75%, which I'll accept as good enough.

Why the difference between the two? It's partly because the Mitsubishi has a smaller battery, so taking it from 50% to 75% requires less energy. I'm more concerned by the Leaf session and the way we were billed.


There's a lot of fine print to owning an electric car, and now that Level 3 is available, we see there's fine print for quick-charging, too. As with Level 2, the quick-charging rate depends on temperature. A recent revision to our Leaf owner's manual explains that quick charging can take up to 90 minutes or longer, depending on temperature. The optimal battery temperature, based on a gauge on the instrument panel, is seven or eight bars out of 12. Here's the problem: our Leaf's battery-temp gauge has never been below four segments or above six through Chicago's extreme seasons.

During our field trial, it was a pleasant 52 degrees F. Does this mean it would charge even more slowly if it were 42 or 32 degrees? Our Level 2 experience suggests that that's likely.

Knowing that the much-marketed 30-minute quick-charge time is actually a loose guideline, the city of Chicago's 30-minute timeout could be a problem for anyone who wants to fill a Leaf to 80%.

Our second session also ended automatically when the Mitsubishi hit the target charge level. Presumably, because we pay per session rather than per minute, the 20 remaining minutes from that session were lost. So, for one car we paid $7 and didn't get the full charge, and for the second car we paid another $7 and got 24% of a charge. Had we started a second session for the Leaf, to top it off, we would have used a partial session and paid $14 total for an 80% charge.


Obviously, this payment scheme isn't a good one, but you can't necessarily blame the operators. It seems logical to pay for what you use, but in most states, only regulated public utilities are permitted to bill by the kilowatt-hour — something that's being challenged. Until that changes, public-charging providers must bill by session or time. After just one attempt it seems time would be the better way to go.

If we were being billed by the minute, we could have kept our Leaf connected until it was full and then topped off the Mitsubishi, and we still wouldn't have paid for a full 60 minutes. With this arrangement, EV drivers could stop and charge for five to 10 minutes to extend their range rather than running the battery perilously low to be sure and get their money's worth at a flat-fee session.

Let's look at cost of operation: The best-case scenario is we pay $7 and leave with our Leaf's battery 80% full. The EPA estimates the Leaf's range at 73 miles for a full battery, so the 80% range is 58.4 miles on that $7. Even with gasoline at almost $4 per gallon, a Toyota Prius, rated 50 mpg combined, can travel almost twice as far for the same money. A less efficient gas-powered car would also be in the ballpark.

Quick charging is a convenience, but at this rate, you clearly wouldn't want to make a habit of it. The electric car advantage comes from charging at home, which costs less than $3 for a complete charge. Another question is how much a Level 2 public charge will cost. We'll analyze that in a future post.

All photos by Evan Sears for



So what is a "session"? It's not time-based apparently and it's not kWh-based either. In other words what determines the endpoint of a session?

Brian Keez

I agree that $7 per session is not attractive. Especially when you know how low commercial electric rates are. I use a DC fast charger two or three times per week and have never seen a session stop at the 67% level. I consistantly see it stop at 10 bars with my Nissan LEAF. I have only uses an Eaton CHAdeMO.


Another reason why ICE econoboxes remain so popular.

I have a brother in Manhattan, NY, who owns a Leaf bought in LA, CA, and his charging options are limited to the 110V plug at his parking space in his high-rise parking garage.

And since there are very few available charging stations near where he lives, he and his wife drive their Camry and F150 most of the time, and use the Leaf as a novelty item.

Not a good way to go either since most public parking spaces with chargers are taken up or blocked by non-EVs.

Then again, you can always park the EV in a special EV-only parking area and take a taxi or public bus to where you are going.

Kinda shoots the whole EV thing in the @ss, doesn't it?

John C. Briggs

Thanks so much for the detailed reporting. Clearly more work is needed.


Well done Joe! I have to agree with your summary on paying based on a "plugged-in" session vs. per minute (or even 6-minute increments as I've heard may come with the Blink system). I drive a Leaf around eastern TN (Knoxville and Maryville area) and have also not had to pay for public charging yet (L2 or DCFC), but will make sure and report what's going on in East TN once they do! I've recharged several times using DCFC but of course there wasn't any time limit: it just filled it up to whatever I selected. Here's to hoping most end up billing by time!

I've yet to have tried one of these (we've owned a LEAF for 4 months now) and have always charged it on our Schneider Sq D L2 240V charger in our garage. We were able to get a fixed rate of 6.6 cent/kWh so the price difference is even more ... hey just like a convenience store or movie theatre where you pay double or more for a soda would expect something to offset the cost for these but you would expect at least a full 80% charge for your $7 fee. We've only seen a slight uptick to our monthly electric bill (our LEAF has ~ 3K miles now)and am averaging about 4.3 miles/kWh currently. We would use these to extend the overall range when traveling to say Milwaukee or Madison but our home charger handles metro Chicago pretty well as-is. It would be good to see some LEAF or Mitsu 'i' owners to post their own experiences using an L3 as well as perhaps's was a fluke?

Max Reid

Ideally the utility companies should
1. Setup chargers in their own office parking lots
2. Team up with grocery stores and install a charger.
3. Lease an EV to their employees.

This will give a big boost to EV/Plugin.

>>>>>Even with gasoline at almost $4 per gallon, a Toyota Prius, rated 50 mpg combined, can travel almost twice as far for the same money


I am soooo interested in buying a leaf. I live in the st. Pete metro area and i have seen several charging stations. I will be moving, however to a little more rural area in Fl. I am a little hesitant with the mile range and about the fact that the leafs havent been out there enough to really know what to exlect from this EV. Interested in hearing your thoughts and experience with the leaf. I would really appreciate any feedback.


Volume Van

There are 12,000 EV charging stations in USA. This includes both Level 2 & 3 chargers. Hope they will soon hit a count of 25,000 and then march to 50,000 and 100,000.


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John Farmer

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Why did the Mitsubishi stop at 75% only after 10 minutes? Should it not only stop at 80% when you are charging from a near empty charge?

Tynan's Fort Collins Nissan now has a Level 3 Charger available for anyone to use at no cost.

5811 S. College Ave
Fort Collins CO 80525

Stop by today to fuel up!

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